In 1355–58, Emperor Karl IV had the imperial chapel of Our Lady, the earliest hall-church in Franconia, built to replace the synagogue torn down after the pogrom of 1349. The architect was probably Peter Parler, who also built Prague Cathedral. Here, in 1361, at the baptism of crown prince Wenzel, the imperial regalia were displayed publicly for the first time. The ornamental clock "Männleinlaufen" (1509; S. Lindenast and G. Heuß), which commemorates the Golden Bull of 1356, shows the seven imperial electors paying homage to the emperor on his throne (daily, 12 noon).
Interior: Epitaphs of the families Peringsdörfer (Madonna of Mercy, ca 1498) and Rebeck (Coronation of the Virgin, ca 1500), both by Adam Kraft. Tucher Altar (ca 1445), a masterpiece of early panel painting.
In 1816, the Frauenkirche was given over to the Catholic congregation of Nürnberg.